How to move forward on sharing data? - Plant Recipes


#1

I’m wondering what people think about ways to begin sharing data. Somebody please correct me if I’m wrong, but my understanding is that, so far, no one has published any data from growing plants in a food computer. There’s quite a bit about building food computers, but I haven’t seen recipes, time lapse plant images, or logs of measurements. [edit 1: see https://twitter.com/kikai_tomato, thanks for the link @spaghet; edit 2: there are a couple greens recipes at https://github.com/OpenAgInitiative/openag_recipe_bag]

I’ve been thinking about this for a while. In the spirit of Cunningham’s Law, it seems the door is wide open for somebody to build a prototype data sharing architecture for others to discuss and improve upon.

Part of the data sharing problem seems to be that, for many people, building a food computer according to the PFC2 design is prohibitively complex and expensive. But, I don’t see why sharing data or recipes has to be tied specifically to the PFC2 design.

@Caleb, my understanding is that your vision for OpenAg is to have many Food Computer and Food Server designs with sharing and cross-pollination of tools, techniques, ideas, and data. Is that right?

A simple idea on how to begin

As a starting point, it would be great for people who want to share data to just describe what they did–any way they can–in as much detail as they have the patience to manage.

If somebody has CSV data from a PFC1, they could:

  1. Put it in a gist on GitHub and post the link in a forum thread.
  2. Put it in a publicly shared google sheet.

The obvious shortcoming here is, how do you associate plant images with the measurements? Also, based on this forum thread and this forum thread, I’m not sure if it’s possible to export data from a PFC1.

A more involved idea

Here’s an idea that somebody could build. This might be implementable on a PFC2, but I’m thinking about it more broadly–maybe this would work for any small DIY or commercial hydroponics system:

  1. Make a twitter account for publishing your data
  2. Prepare for your grow by ordering seeds and nutrients
  3. Tweet where you got the seeds, what variety they are, and a picture of the seed packet. For example:
    #openagdata #growNum01 #seeds Johnny's Selected Seeds, Premium Greens Mix, part no. 650
  4. Tweet the manufacturer and name of the nutrients you’re using along with a picture of their packaging. For example:
    #openagdata #growNum01 #nutrients General Hydroponics, FloraDuo A and FloraDuo B
  5. Use a twitter-bot running on a Raspberry Pi to tweet at 30 minute intervals with a webcam picture of the grow chamber and text like this:
    #openagdata #growNum01 #log 19:30 22Feb2017 - pH: 6.5, EC: 900, h2oT: 65F, airT: 73F, airH: 64%rh, CO2: 1000ppm

Rationale for sharing with a tweet-bot

The main idea behind my twitter example is that the easier it is for people to post their data, the more data will get posted sooner rather than later, and the quicker structure will emerge around what ways of sharing data are useful and not.

Using a twitter bot to share data would make it easy for people to get started building an open dataset because:

  1. You don’t have to get a bunch of people to agree on anything up front
  2. Your Raspberry Pi can be on a private LAN with a dynamic IP and NAT–it doesn’t need a public IP address, domain name, SSL cert, etc.
  3. Nobody has to build or host a central clearinghouse for sharing plant data
  4. Using hashtags like #growNum01 as a serial number for the experiment, #seeds and #nutrients for metadata, and #log for measurements ought to give enough structure for a data aggregation bot to follow the feed and make sense of what was being posted.

I’m assuming that with all the progress in machine learning and computer vision these days, it doesn’t make sense to worry about trying to make people publish their data in a highly structured format. Rather, it’s better to aim for lots of data–including images–and put the burden of aggregation on a bot that follows #openagdata or specific feeds.

Based on what I see on the forum–due to the global nature of the OpenAg Initiative–people are going to be using different seeds, building with different materials, feeding with different nutrients, and operating in very different ambient temperature and humidity. Trying to anticipate and accommodate all that up front is probably more hassle than it’s worth–my guess is that it would be better to plan for organizing loosely structured data with the expectation that data formats will evolve.

@gordonb, any thoughts on this?


MVP - Product Design
Sensor Data Modeling
Growing food: I just ordered a MicroGrow Kit from Hamama
#2

https://twitter.com/kikai_tomato

Our friend @Masato has this account he’s been posting to although it looks like he’s written his own code


#3

That’s awesome. I can’t read the words, but the pictures are great!


#4

The automated tweets just say "The State of the Tomato 2017/… #AutomatedTomatoGrowth "


#5

Haha ok, I’ll reconsider what language i write at twitter.


#6

Great post. Really excited to see where this goes.

I want to definitely begin to publish data from the Food Server we are constructing here in STL.

Thanks for starting the conversation.

Thanks,
Peter.

@webbhm Thoughts?


Data Challenge: Is It Mature Yet?
Data Model Exercise: Cornell Hydroponic Lettuce
#7

Data Collection & Sharing: Goals
I have about six posts to make on this topic regarding different issues that need to be considered. This first post is regarding goals: what do you hope to achieve by sharing data? I could share my entire CouchDB (20k data points at the moment), but if you don’t know what plant I am growing, the recipe, or the plant health (phenotype data); the temperature and LUX are of no value by themselves. On the other hand, you can get started just knowing a seed (bib lettuce), light regiment (16 hr on, 8 hr off), fertilizer (1 teaspoon Jacks 20/20/20) and temperature (24 C). Different goals require different data. First define your goal:

  1. Don’t kill the plant
  2. Get a good head of lettuce (looks like what can get at the grocery)
  3. Repeatable consistency
  4. Increase production (from 1 to 5,000 heads per harvest)
  5. Increase efficiency (less water, less energy, lower costs)
  6. Improve: flavor, texture, color, etc…
  7. Data mining and research

Start simple, but realize that the types and amounts of data will expand as things progress. One rule of data is that as things go forward there is a desire for more; more details and more context. It may be ok for now to say that my temperature is 24C, but in the future it may be important to know that I am using two temperature sensors, and though they are precise, they vary from each other by .4 degrees. There is an inverse corollary that older, less detailed data is of no help for more detailed research or administrative needs (you cannot do analysis on what you didn’t collect).

Future topics I want to address the following aspects of data:

  1. Categories of data
  2. Research -vs- Production data
  3. Plan -vs- Actual data
  4. Levels of data (Operational, Administrative, Analytic)
  5. Data cycles (Plan, Act, Evaluate, Decide)
  6. Standard data patterns & Business Process Modeling (Who, What, When, Where, How, Why)

Basic questions about flavor data and recipe bag
#8

I’m not sure if you intended that as a question for me, or if you were just setting up context. But, I’ll take it as a question. I definitely agree that goals are important.

Taking it up to a higher level of abstraction, I started this thread because the vision @Caleb talks about sounds wonderful and inspiring, but it doesn’t match the reality of what’s actually happening here on the forum.

So far, the activity is mostly people discussing their attempts to build a complicated and expensive hydroponics design that–as Caleb points out in his talks–is mostly only useful for collecting data. Data sharing seems to be central to Caleb’s vision, so I’m curious to hear what people think about that and what ideas people have for moving forward.

I’m here because I want practical tools and knowledge for growing food indoors on a small scale. I’m also inspired by the idea of steering my career in a direction that involves spending more time with plants. After Elon’s Mars talk last fall, sometimes I daydream about the possibility of farming on Mars. Also, the people here are friendly and enthusiastic.

I’m curious to hear what other folks think and to see how the various perspectives align with what Caleb has in mind. I look forward to reading the other posts that you mentioned wanting to write.


#9

Data Collection & Sharing: Categories

Data tends to cluster in groups, with relationships (often activities) that connect the different groups. There are two main clusters:

  • Plan: what you intend to do. This is documented before you start growing (ie. the recipe)
  • Actual: data collected in the process of growing

The main categories are:

  1. Context
  2. Genetics
  3. Agronomics
    3a. Planting, Transplanting, Pruning, Harvesting, …
    3b. Treatments
  4. Observations
    4a. Environment
    4b. Phenotype

Context is the things that are assumed and often overlooked when thinking of data. For OpenAg this is relatively simple, as the primary context is the Food Computer itself - what sensors are installed, where it is located, type of growing (agroponic, hydroponic, raft, deep water, …). This can be simple, or go off into some complex detail (ie. sensors may have calibration requirements, drift rates, maintenance history, certification, …). This data can often be overlooked, but becomes critical when discrepancies are found (“but I thought you …”). The hardware_fixture and hardware_fixture_type would be pieces of information in this category.
Genetics This is a part of context, but a significant context. This can be as simple as Bently Buttercrunch Bibb lettuce, or the complexity of breeding history and DNA sequencing. I would recommend including a Latin name (though this has its own problems). Where you got the seed from (Bently, Burpee, …) is provenance (where you got it from), and not a direct attribute of the seed. I would suggest starting simple (Latin name, common name, supplier) for most work, unless you are getting into seed breeding or DNA/phenotype relationships. There are interesting things in the seed business, where a company will sell different genotypes in different markets under the same name; and with heirloom, open pollinated seeds there is no assurance that the genetics are consistent between seeds.
Agronomics: These are the farming activities - actions performed on the plants as a part of their life-cycle, or on their context (ie. plowing in traditional farming). These things are usually part of a ‘handbook’ of standard practices. Agronomic data will come as two parts: the plan of when and how to do something, and the actual of who did what when. A third part is derived data, comparing the actual to the plan. These comparisons are the bread-and-butter of administrative analysis, and irrelevant to research (assuming the plan was followed).
Treatment: applications of fertilizer, pesticides and pro-biotics. Where there is irrigation or ‘ebb - flood’ watering, this would also be considered a treatment. Treatments may be a regularly scheduled part of a recipe; or it may be an interrupt/exception such as a fungicide or insecticide treatment. pH up and down dosing is a treatment activity.
Observations: these will become the real ‘meat’ of OpenAg, as these are the variables that get mesured.
Environment: this is what most of the sensors are picking up; temperature, humidity, light, conductivity, pH. This is the easiest to collect, most abundant, and likely will end up having the least value (to be explained later). Unlike field agriculture, climate for the food computer should be a controlled variable.
Phenotype: this is what Caleb and others see as the future for OpenAg, it is also what nobody has defined as to how it will be collected and recorded. Phenotype data is the big variable that we want to watch as it responds to different controlled variables. In the phrasing of OBO, these are measures of the quality of a substance (leaf length). It is a personal bias, but I am going to push hard to use the OBO ontologies for this data.

Until we pin down how to collect phenotype observations, there will be little significant data to share.

Next Up: Data Levels


#10

#Data Collection and Sharing: Data Levels
Not all data has the same value to all people. In my experience there are three broad groups of data users:

  • Operations
  • Administration
  • Analytics

These three groups will work with the same data, but with different perspectives and at different summary levels.
Operations: is the moment-to-moment running of the business (ie. what the Food Computer does). Whether the goal is research or food manufacturing, they are all driven by the data. The questions that are being asked are of the nature of: “what do I need to know in order to decide what to do next?” Plans and configuration data set the context, this data determines the action. This is the temperature sensor data that is used to determine if the thermostat adjusts the temperature up or down. These are the observations that decide if the lettuce head is big enough, and healthy enough to be sent to market. Normally it is this operational level that determines the ‘finest grained’ level of data. I am a strong believer in creating a ‘business process model’ that defines the action steps: observing, deciding, acting. Based on this model you then know what data to collect and how it will be used.

Administration: Administration tends to look at trending data to determine performance and efficiency. Is the germination rate increasing or decreasing, does it differ by time, location, or who did the planting? Does a different light save energy, how does its performance change over time? Is one food computer performing better than another? These are business questions (or scientific questions) based on aggregate, summary data. The operational data is summed/averaged/aggregated by one or more categories (day, week, month, batch, growth chamber, genetic strain, recipe, equipment, …), then compared against similar sets. There will likely be standard reports (weekly production reports, …) as well as ad-hoc inquiries. In many businesses, the operational data is summarized and moved to a data warehouse for reporting and analysis (ie the map reduce jobs of CouchDB). The detailed operational data is not important to these people, unless they are ‘drilling down’ to find out why something doesn’t look right.

Analytisc:This is usually another level of summary and abstraction above the administration data. In sales, this is the marketing trends and forecasting. Often these summaries are bases on random sample subsets of operational data (‘how much nutrient does the average plant use?’). This is where the ‘big data’ analytics come in; where OpenAg will take the results of multiple growth cycles of multiple food computers to look at correlations between recipes. Often the context data (what brand of fertilizer, lights, …) becomes important here, where it is assumed knowledge at the lower levels (the operations person knows what bag they got the fertilizer from!)

Two take-away points here:

  • In designing data capture and storage, it is important to consider all users (and potential users).
  • If done with some foresight, it is possible to set up the operational systems to capture data that can easily be transformed for multiple uses (I will propose a standard data template in a future post).
  • Failure to capture key information (in a usable format) can turn a terabyte data warehouse into a data landfill.

#11

Thinking about this question, I stumbled upon the Open Ag Data Alliance. It is not clear what they are doing, and I am still digging in. The open source section is somewhat active, with an API definition draft.

Perhaps there are some interesting things to see there.


#12

I was peripheral to Open Ag Data Alliance when I worked at Climate/Monsanto. At one level this is helpful, and we share similar goals; but at another level we are in two different worlds.

At one level we are all growing genetic material, with actions of preparation, planting, treatments, observations and harvest; but scratch below the surface and things get context specific quickly. The focus here is yield data, soil data, seed varieties and to some degree planting data.
Farming of corn and soybeans is fairly standardized (row widths, seeds per foot), and while manufacturers may vary in how they store planting and harvest information, it is very similar - but quite different from our world. We do not measure by the acre! We think of plants/fruit harvested rather than seed harvest (bushels per acre).
Their recipes center around seeding density and fertilization. We are strong on controlling the environment, yet weather data is not a part of their scope.
I like their methodology of starting with use cases, and think we should do the same thing. Looking at this use case, it is obvious that the data exchange activities they are concerned with are quite different than our activities (standardizing combine yield monitor formats). Their use case focuses on data exchange, not agricultural activities.
My other big complaint with Open Ag is that they are starting with an interchange standard (infrastructure definition) rather than starting with a data definition. They are focusing on how to exchange data rather than on what data is in and of itself. You have to get to the how, but , but it should not be the first step.


#13

#Data Collection and Sharing: Plan, Act, Evaluate & Decide
There is a pattern of fractal cycles in data, decisions within decisions. Is hydroponics my best business plan? Is this recipe the most profitable? How many plants should I start? Do I need to adjust the temperature? All the data we work with falls into these four uses, and frequently the decisions from one level become the basis for evaluations at a higher level.
Plan data is often is PowerPoint presentations needed for meetings, videos or text documents. The information exists, but it is not usable by an automated system (ie convenient to compare the actual activities to the planned activities).
Action Within action data I am including both recordings of activities (the fan turned on) and observations (the plant is 100cm tall). Action data is usually not a problem: how many widgets did we make? What was the temperature in the Food Computer? When did the fan turn on? These are the things that are easy to wire up with sensors and record.
Evaluations are there, but often hidden. At a low level, these comparisons are often buried in code as ‘IF’ statements. The decision logic was documented in code, but often hard to find as data. Sometimes the evaluations are complex equations, at other times they are gut reactions. I have seen situations where a ‘scientific decision’ has pages of data and elaborate statistical/geospatial analysis, only to have the final decision be someone’s opinion (I know my project is the best!). It is difficult to document which outliers of a data set were discarded or assumptions made for setting calculation parameters; yet if this information is not available we easily end up with irreproducable research.
It is also easy to confuse an evaluation with a decision (which makes changing processes, or later evaluations difficult to impossible). There is a big difference between saying “the head of lettuce weighs 1kg” and saying “the lettuce is ready for harvest”. 1kg may be an observation, and it may be a decision criteria, but it is not a decision*.
Decision Some decisions are easy to document, the fan turned on, the heater turned off. Others may be well know, but less documented (“Lets buy another Food Computer!!”). It is important to capture these decisions, as they are the input data for higher level evaluations (“is the fan working?”).

All the data we collect is there for a reason, to be used for a decision - either immediate or as part of a future question. In spite of the mantra of ‘big data’ to “collect everything”, we don’t. OpenAg is not interested in the fact that I had two slices of cold pizza and a handful of M&Ms for breakfast, or that my two mismatched socks have not been changed for a week - it has no statistically significant correlation to how the plants in the food computer are growing.

A major difficulty is in getting all the data into a consistent, usable format. My last forum post in this series will be on the StAT pattern (Standard Activity Template), a standardized data format that I have used for data capture that simplifies statistical summary and analysis.

*I am in strong agreement with Barry Smith that scientific ontologies must be based on what is ‘out there’ and not on what is ‘in our heads’. There is a big difference between saying ‘the lettuce weighs 1kg’ and saying ‘I am of the opinion that the lettuce weighs 1kg’. The former may be right or wrong, while the latter just is (and cannot be verified or disputed).


#14

Thank you for your feedback on OADA. Good to know that it is related, yet out of scope for now.

The use case methodology has served in many situations, and I think it is a strong step forward to address the question raised in this thread.

Any suggestions on how to get started? I am wondering about a discussion format more appropriate than here, as well as avoiding over-engineering. Perhaps a new repository on GitHub?


#15

For whatever it’s worth, I’m hoping for further discussion of the goals which are motivating people to come here and participate. It would be interesting to hear from any educators who might be following this thread.

Categories of motivation

So far here on the forums I’ve noticed four major categories of apparent motivation:

  1. Education: Caleb’s group at MIT has worked with schools, and teachers and parents have posted about approaching OpenAg as an educational project. Caleb has mentioned in talks–or perhaps here in a forum post–speaking with at least one leader who was interested in renewing interest in farming among young people in his country. Also, see this thread.

  2. Maker project: Several people have posted here about their enthusiasm for building a food computer in a way that I interpret as being part of–or aligned with–the Maker movement. They seem to be excited about the build and not too concerned about how much food they end up growing–at least that’s not the part they talk about most.

  3. Open source commercial research: @webbhm, from the language you use, it seems like you’re giving lots of thought to how the OpenAg project could be relevant to applied research as part of a business.

  4. Growing food: Looking through old posts, I noticed at least a couple people who came here wanting to discuss technical details of growing food hydroponically. These folks generally seem to get frustrated and leave when they realize the conversations here are more about software and building devices rather than about experience gained from actually growing food.


#16

Thank you for all the great ideas @wsnook and @webbhm . I’m going to start putting together plans for the back end that will manage data. All this input has been very helpful.


#17

#Data Collection and Sharing: StAT Pattern
In research, if you don’t have good data, you have not done the work. The following is a summary of what I have learned about capturing research data.
Peter Coad’s Universal Model started me down the path of this thinking years ago, and the development of what has become known as the StAT pattern (Standard Activity Template). It is a pattern for capturing data, and allows easy aggregation and summaries for different reporting needs (ie Data Warehousing). This was used to standardize data from multiple research systems into consistent reporting for an entire research pipeline. For those familiar with data warehousing, this follows the ‘star/snowflake’ pattern where there are transaction tables surrounded by standardized ‘facts’.
It assumes that activities tie everything together, whether it is a 7-11 retail system selling grape slurpees (Activity: sale; Subject: slurpee; Where: store, register; Who: clerk, customer; …), gene transformation or growing plants.
The activity table has the following core columns:

  • Subject_Id
  • Activity_Id
  • Activity_Name
  • Start_Date
  • End_Date
  • Participant
  • Current_Status
  • Status_Qualifier
  • Status_Qualifier_Reason
  • Comment

Subject_Id:This is usually a reference to a plant or part of the environment (air, water). This is a reference, in the same way that the firmware_module has an id reference to the firmware_module_type.
Activity_Id: A reference to the activity being done - planting, observing, temperature_up, …
Activity_Name: a denormalized convenience field, a recognizable name that corresponds to the id.
Start_Date: Some activities are ‘punctiliar’ or momentary and will have only one data. Other processes span a period of time and will have a start data and and end date. This field will always be populated, often when the record is created.
End_Date: If the activity spans a period of time, this is the time it finished; otherwise it is left blank.
Participant: Who did the work. This may be a person, or it may be the a piece of equipment (sensor, RaspberryPi, …)
Current_Status: This is one of three values - Success, Failure, Cancel. This is a high level activity summary that allows for cross activity summaries (process timelines).
Status_Qualifier: Each activity type will have a standardized set of qualifiers, usually a list of why the activity failed. If the activity was germination, it is important to know why the plant might have died: fungus, eaten by insects, grower dropped the tray, … This information is important for process improvement inquiries.
Comment: At an operational level, sometimes the status qualifier is not enough information to understand what happened. Comments allow for any free text that might be useful in the future (“Mice chewed through the water pipe and drained the system”).

Often a separate table is created for each activity, and additional fields are added to support the activity (inputs/materials and outputs/products). An observation will have not just the subject (lettuce plant) but possibly the plant part (leaf), attribute (length), unit (inches) and value (2.5). Sometimes this my be detailed with the protocol used and equipment (ie model of pH sensor). These detailed tables support the operational needs.In a small, single food computer it may not be necessary to tag each record with common knowledge (ie the variety of lettuce being grown, who performed the activity), but it is important to add this information in when the data is aggregated and combined with other projects (ie handed off to MIT). Such ‘common knowledge’ needs to be captured somewhere and made available. In the rush to ‘move on’ I often saw end dates ignored (not captured), from an operational perspective this is not important, but it made it impossible to determine performance and effeciency at a later time (ie did Task A end when the Task B started, or was there a delay between when Task A finished and Task B started?)
Queries or map reduce jobs are used to strip out common fields for summary reporting: what is the average time to complete this task? How many tasks have finished this step? What is the relationship between pH and leaf length? What is the success rate of fertilizer A to fertilizer B?

Reporting is what drives data collection. If you don’t use data, there is no point in collecting it. There is a need to think through the types of reports (operational, administrative, analytic) and the particulars of reports before defining what is to be collected. The ‘big data’ mantra of ‘collect is all and figure it out later’ does not work. You are wasting time and money if you fail to collect data, or collect it in incompatible formats (ie trying to compare light LUX readings to photosynthetically active radiation). It will never be perfect, but having a plan and thinking about this from the start will pay off with dividends later.


#18

@webbhm I like your StAT pattern description.

I can only speak for myself, but I suspect many others on these forums may be in the same boat: I can see why the formality you describe will be important for the data to be useful. But, I don’t feel like I’m at all prepared to contribute at that level. For me, it would be a significant accomplishment to learn how to grow plants consistently without killing most of them.

Much of the appeal of indoor hydroponics for me boils down to, “Hey, maybe I could have affordable, super-fresh salads all year long.” That leads me back to one of your earlier observations:

what do you hope to achieve by sharing data? I could share my entire CouchDB (20k data points at the moment), but if you don’t know what plant I am growing, the recipe, or the plant health (phenotype data); the temperature and LUX are of no value by themselves. On the other hand, you can get started just knowing a seed (bib lettuce), light regiment (16 hr on, 8 hr off), fertilizer (1 teaspoon Jacks 20/20/20) and temperature (24 C). Different goals require different data.

To me, collecting scientifically valid data about phenotype expression isn’t motivating at all–it’s not a goal I care about. Rather, I’m excited about learning to grow fresh salad even when the weather isn’t cooperating. I want to eat good food, and I want to help others eat good food.

My current thinking on “How to move forward on sharing data?” is that, as a community, we’re not ready to do research yet. We could dream up some sort of distributed CouchDB replication scheme, but what would be the point? Whose data would we replicate? What reports would we make from that? If there were a bunch of people here who were already experienced in growing food hydroponically, formalizing research methods and data collection might make sense. But, it seems like only a few people are actually growing food.

The goal I’m excited about now–one that seems within reach–is helping people learn the basics of growing food hydroponically.


#19

@wsnook
I totally agree with you, if you are not into research, much of this is not significant; however, you can still provide useful data, but at a higher (and simpler) level.
All you need is a recipe that has a good track record. That, and the operational data to know that your food computer is keeping the right temperature, light and nutrients is all you need to produce a nice salad.
Sharing the details of temperature or even phenotype has minimal value for a known recipe, but it is still very valuable to know how many people tried the recipe, and the success rate you have.
At that point, a single record (along this pattern) would be fine:
Subject: RecipeXYZ
Activity: Growth Cycle
Start_Date: mm/dd/yy
End_Date: mm/dd/yy
Participant your name
Current_Status: Success
Comments: Tastes great!! (especially with just vinegar and oil)

Thanks for the feedback.


#20

@webbhm What do you think about the idea of approaching all this from the angle of matching suitable crops to available microclimates? I’ve been thinking about something like this:

  1. Design a cheap data logger–perhaps based on Arduino or the new Raspberry Pi Zero W–that people can use to monitor microclimates inside their homes. This could be a fun and cheap Maker project.

  2. Write a program or guide that can help match their available microclimate profiles to suitable crop varieties. [edit: this information is available in seed catalogs]

  3. Write guides for how to start seedlings and grow crops according to some semi-standardized procedures that would help with comparing results (e.g. if you want to go super cheap, do Kratky method like this…, or if you want to spend a little more, do DWC like this…).

  4. Build tools to help log procedures, timing, and results in a semi-standardized way. I’m thinking something like taking one of the new Raspberry Pi Zero Ws with the camera top case, adding a simple temp & humidity sensor, zip-tying it next to the plants on a wire shelf, and taking time lapse photos with overlaid timestamps and temp/humidity measurements. There could also be a little web GUI that people could log into with a phone, laptop, iPad, or whatever to start an experiment and take notes.

  5. Write a tool to help people share their progress from step 4 on social media as a way of building community and spreading knowledge.

What I’m getting at is that building climate control chambers seems like an expensive and inefficient way for people to get started learning to grow food indoors–hydroponics doesn’t have to be that complicated.